ESOK-hanke 2006-2011

Liite 1) Some web-related eAccessibility challenges and solutions

Kuvan sisältö on seuraavassa taulukossa.

Lähde: Accessibility of ICT products and services to Disabled and Older People Evidence-based analysis for a possible co-ordinated European approach to web accessibility

Some web-related eAccessibility challenges and solutions
Visual impairment Barriers

Layout not adaptable to users viewing needs (e.g. font-size, contrast
Use Flexible layouts that can be adapted by users to viewing needs

Cannot see visual content (text, links, images etc)
Provide textual descriptions of images, graphs and animations (alt-text) that can be read by screen readers

Provide audio description of the visual part of multimedia content such as videos

Provide content in a way that it can be read by screen reader software e.g. by using valid HTML code.
Hearing impairments Barriers

Cannot hear sound at all or at usual volume Provide volume control when using sounds, background music, videos with sound etc.

Cannot read textual content due to illiteracy (some deaf)
Provide sign-language alternatives of all textual content for users that only speak sign-language, e.g. signing videos or animations.

Provide text alternatives of all relevant audio e.g. subtitles / captioning for videos.

Avoid user alerts that are only based on sound and provide a visual alternative.
Cognitive impairments Barriers

Difficult to understand large amounts of unstructured text
Structure large amounts of texts e.g. by using headings and subheadings or by breaking down into several pages

Confused by animations, sounds etc.
Use images, icosn or graphs in a sensible manner to illustrate textual content.

Confused by unintuitive / badly structured menus
Avoid confusing, fast moving flashing animations and unexpected, loud, out-of-context sounds.
Dexterity impairments Barriers

Difficulties hitting small elements on the screen with mouse
Provide elements of sufficient size and with sufficient margin to adjacent elements

Cannot use keyboard instead of mouse
Alternatively, use flexible layouts that allow users to control the size and formatting of those elements

Unable to respond in given time limit
Provide full support for keyboard-only users, e.g. by defining keyboard shortcuts

Avoid response mechanisms (like pressing a button) that impose time limits or ensure that time limits are not too restricted
Low literacy Barriers

Confused by complicated language, jargon
Provide easy, clearly structured menus, using labels that are familiar to users

Avoid unnecessarily complicated language and jargon, provide alternative easier descriptions and explanations of jargon or abbreviations.
Slow connections, small displays etc Barriers

Long loading times due to large amounts of data
Use flexible layouts that can be adapted by users to viewing needs

Viewing needs require adaptation of layout
Make reasonable efforts to ensure that a website remains usable when the transmission of images and multimedia content has been turned off by the user in order to save bandwith.